EARLS FAMILY CHRONICLES© Christopher Earls Brennen
THE ARNOLD FAMILY
This is the family history of our ancestor, Mary Arnold (1880-1922), the daughter of Robert and Jane Arnold, who married John Earls.
Arnolds have been present in County Armagh at least since the 1630s, for in the Muster Roll of that year the Lord Mountmorrice, undertaker of 1000 acres in Armagh, lists among his men a Robert Arnold who owned no arms. More specifically Arnolds have held land in an area just northwest of Portadown, County Armagh, since the end of the 1600s. The Hearth Money Rolls of 1664 record a John Arnell as resident in the townland of Dromagh (Drummenagh ?), parish of Drumcree. Drummenagh is just southwest of Derrycaw where our first known Arnold ancestors resided. Several early records refer to an Edward Arnold who farmed in the townland of Foymore which is immediately to the west of Derrycaw.
Northwest corner of County Armagh where Arnolds lived.
The townland of Derrycaw is in the Union of Lurgan and the parish of Drumcree and lies just north of Derrykeevan on the old Portadown to Dungannon road. The surrounding townlands are Derrymacfall to the east, Derryall and Derryneskan to the north, Foymore to the west and Foybeg and Derryvane to the south. It may be worth recording that some of this area and specifically the townland of Derrykeevan was uninhabitated until about 100 years ago. A deed (Vol.56, p.237, No.37759) dated May 23, 1728, records a marriage settlement on Jan.16, 1726, between Benjamin Howard of Dromalis in the parish of Drumcree and Jane Phere alias Arnold, a widow of Dromenagh (Drummenagh ?), parish of Drumcree. Edward Arnold, a farmer of ``Fay'', County Armagh, was a witness and probably Jane's father or brother. We learn alot more about Edward from a lease dated 1732 [PRONI T971/412] and an exchequer bill [PRONI T808/602] dated Nov.15, 1734. The exchequer bill records the legal action taken by Edward Arnold, a husbandman of ``Faymore'', County Armagh against his erstwhile partner, Robert Corran of the same place. This states that in 1732 and for several years before Edward and Robert jointly held Faymore from William Brownlow of Brownlowsderry, County Armagh, and that Edward built and planted his part and laid out a bleach green on which he carried on the business of a bleacher. Then on Sep.2, 1732, on expiration of the lease Brownlow gave Edward leases on both parts of Faymore and that Corran then sublet to Edward the bleach green with its water rights (perhaps the names should have been reversed in this last statement). The bill also records that a John Arnold is the agent for Edward in Dublin. This bill was not answered. Nearly twenty years later in 1753 two Arnolds, Anthony and Edward, are included in a list of voters in a County Armagh election. Both Anthony and Edward are listed as freeholders on property worth two or more pounds and both are listed as residents in the townland of Foymore.
Even in 1990 it is recalled that there were a number of cottages in Derrycaw and Derryall which were at one time occupied by Arnolds. Apart from the original homestead in Derrycaw, there was also a cottage and land in the ``Foy Lane'' known as ``The Shane''.
- Thomas Arnold, our earliest known Arnold ancestor, was born about 1780. He was a farmer in Derrycaw. Thomas had at least four sons and one daughter. He is believed to be buried at Tartaraghan Presbyterian Church.
- Archibald Arnold, the brother of Thomas, was a farmer in Lisnagleer between Cookstown and Dungannon, County Tyrone and was farming there in 1850 at the time of his son's marriage. He is reputed to have founded the Baptist Church in Lisnagleer, in which there is a plaque memorializing him. His house still stands in Lisnagleer. There may be some descendants still living in Lisnagleer. I was directed to seek out Mrs. Flo Parke who lived (1990) in nearby Lisnanane but ran out of time. Archibald had a son and a daughter:
- Margaret Arnold (1808-1898) married her cousin, Mark Arnold, on Feb.15, 1853, in Presbyterian Meeting House, Tartaraghan (see below).
- James Arnold was born in 1825 or 26. On Sept.3, 1850, at the age of 25 he married Margaret Faulkner, aged 20, in the Second Presbyterian Church of Cookstown. On their marriage certificate James is listed as a bachelor farmer of Lisnagleer whose father was Archibald Arnold, farmer. Margaret's place of residence is given as Killyman and her father as William Faulkner, farmer. James and Margaret were still living in Lisnagleer in 1901 and are listed as Baptists in the census of that year. Their children:
- Archibald Arnold, born about 1852, married a woman named Mary and took over the farm in Lisnagleer from his father. In the 1901 Census he and his wife are listed as occupying the farm along with their family of six children and his father and mother, James and Margaret Arnold. The whole family is listed as Baptists. Archibald and Mary Arnold had at least six children as follows:
- John Arnold, born about 1884, was listed in the 1901 census as living with his parents on their Lisnagleer farm.
- William Arnold, born about 1886, was listed in the 1901 census as living with his parents on their Lisnagleer farm.
- Minnie Arnold, born about 1889, was listed in the 1901 census as living with her parents on their Lisnagleer farm.
- Margaret Arnold, born about 1892, was listed in the 1901 census as living with her parents on their Lisnagleer farm.
- James Arnold, born about 1895, was listed in the 1901 census as living with his parents on their Lisnagleer farm.
- Elizabeth Arnold, born about 1898, was listed in the 1901 census as living with her parents on their Lisnagleer farm.
- Margaret Arnold was born on Feb.13, 1865, in Lisnagleer and died in 1875 at the age of nine.
- Eleanor Arnold was born on Jun.11, 1867, in Lisnagleer.
- John Arnold was born on Jan.30, 1869, in Lisnagleer and died in 1875 at the age of five.
- Robert Arnold was born on May 16, 1871, in Lisnagleer.
CHILDREN OF THOMAS ARNOLD:
- James Arnold (1809-1892), our ancestor, was the oldest of the four known sons of Thomas Arnold. He was also a farmer in Derrycaw, parish of Drumcree. James married Eliza Farmer (1819-1889) and they had at least nine children who are listed later. Like his brothers Anthony and Mark, James is listed in the Griffith Valuation of the 1860s as holding property from Lord Lurgan in the townland of Derrycaw, parish of Drumcree. His farmland of 9 acres, 3 roods and 30 perches is valued at 8 pounds and 10 shillings while his house and farm buildings are valued at 1 pound and five shillings. We also know that at some point in his life James went to Australia since a surviving photograph of him was taken in Ballarat, Australia, by Geo Richards, Photographer. Ballarat was the center of the Australian gold rush which began in 1851. A James Arnold is listed in the 1882 directory for Ballarat as a carter living on Lal Lal Street, Ballarat East. The street listing for Lal Lal Street includes many miners. The directory also includes, Geo. Richards, Artist, at 19 Sturt Street in 1875, Richards and Co., Photographer, at 19 Sturt Street in 1882 and in 1888-9. That company is still trading today under the name of Thornton and Richards. The photograph was therefore probably taken about 1875 and before 1882. A photograph of Eliza taken in Belfast is also extant. At the age of 70, she died of bronchitis on Mar.3, 1889, at Derrycaw with her son Mark present. James must have returned from Australia for, at the age of 83, he died of influenza on Jan.2, 1892, at Derrycaw. Son Mark was present at the death.
James Arnold (1809-1892) The back of the left photograph Eliza Arnold (1819-1889)
- Anthony Arnold (1811-(1811-1885) became a farmer in Derrycaw and was married twice. On Jan.21, 1857, he married Rachel Irwin, the daughter of William Irwin, a farmer of Derrymacfall in the Parish Church of Drumcree. Derrymacfall is a townland immediately to the east of Derrycaw. Rachel must have died soon after their marriage for, on Apr.26, 1861 in the Presbyterian Church of Clare in the parish of Ballymore, Anthony married Ann Alister from Cavernagh, parish of Ballymore, County Armagh. Ann's father was John Alister and the marriage was witnessed by Robert Hyde and John Alister. Like his brothers James and Mark, Anthony is listed in the Griffith Valuation of the 1860s as holding property from Lord Lurgan in the townland of Derrycaw, parish of Drumcree. His farmland which together with that of his brother Mark measured 19 acres, 1 rood and 25 perches is valued at 9 pounds and 5 shillings while his house and farm buildings are valued at 1 pound and five shillings. Family history remembers that Anthony and his family occupied one end of the homestead in Derrycaw while his brother Mark and his family occupied the other end. Anthony died at Derrycaw with his nephew Mark present. Ann died at Derrycaw on Jun.1, 1881, at the age of 47; Anthony was present at her death. Anthony died at Derrycaw on Apr.4, 1885, at the age of 74. His nephew Mark was present at his death. Anthony's children:
- Margaret Arnold, daughter of Ann Alister, was born on Feb.13, 1865, in Derrycaw.
- Agness Arnold, daughter of Ann Alister, was born on May 14, 1867, in Derrycaw.
- Mary Anne Arnold, daughter of Ann Alister, was born on May 3, 1868, in Derrycaw.
- Thomas Arnold, son of Ann Alister, was born on Mar.19, 1871, in Derrycaw.
- Mark Arnold (1814-1892) married his cousin, Margaret Arnold (1808-1898), in the Presbyterian Meeting House, Tartaraghan, County Armagh, on Feb.15, 1853, when both were quite old. On the marriage certificate both are stated to be of full age and previously unmarried. Mark is listed as a farmer in Derrycaw, parish of Drumcree, and Margaret's residence is given as Lisnagleer, parish of Pomeroy. James Arnold witnessed the marriage. Like his brothers James and Anthony, Mark is listed in the Griffith Valuation of the 1860s as holding property from Lord Lurgan in the townland of Derrycaw, parish of Drumcree. His farmland which together with that of his brother Anthony measured 19 acres, 1 rood and 25 perches is valued at 9 pounds and 5 shillings while his house and farm buildings are valued at 1 pound and five shillings. Family history remembers that Mark occupied one end of the family homestead in Derrycaw while his brother Anthony and his family occupied the other end. Mark was present at the deaths of his parents in Derrycaw in 1889 and 1892. Mark died at Derrycaw on Apr.17, 1892, at the age of 78; his nephew Thomas Arnold of Derrycaw attended the death. Margaret died on Oct.12, 1898, nephew Thomas in attendance again.
- Thomas Arnold (1816-1892) of whom little is known.
- Mary Arnold was born in 1818 and married Robert Hyde on May 21, 1846, in the Presbyterian Church in the parish of Tartaraghan, County Armagh. Robert was a tailor living in the townland of Megarity and was 24 at the time of their wedding. Robert's father was Alexander Hyde, a pensioner; their marriage certificate gives Mary's father as Thomas Arnold, a farmer of Derrycaw. The marriage was witnessed by Mark Arnold, presumably the bride's brother.
We think that Robert and Mary Hyde were the parents of James Hyde who became a magistrate in Belfast. James Hyde had one son, Harford Montgomery Hyde, born Aug.14, 1907. Montgomery was a contemporary of Margaret Earls and Raymond Calvert and attended Queen's University with them. Thus Irene Calvert came to know him and his mother who hinted to Irene that there was a family relationship. Montgomery Hyde studied English literature at Queen's University and went on to Magdalen College, Oxford where he received a law degree before entering the Middle Temple and being called to the Bar in 1934. In 1935 he began a lengthy association with the family of Lord Londonderry and became private secretary to the Marquess. In the second World War he was with British Intelligence in the USA and in Austria, retiring in 1945 with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was best known to the general public for his biographies of Oscar Wilde, Edward Carson, Stalin and Neville Chamberlain as well as books on famous trials including that of Roger Casement and a history of pornography. Moreover Montgomery served as the Unionist member of Parliament in Westminster from North Belfast from 1950 until 1959. He died Aug.10, 1989, survived by his wife Robbie.
There is also a Martha Hyde, born about 1900, whose grandmother was an Arnold and who was still living in a nursing home near Portadown in 1990. She married a Templeton.
CHILDREN OF JAMES AND ELIZA ARNOLD:
James Arnold, one of the older children, was born in 1847 in Crabtree Lane, Portadown. As a young farmer, James would walk about 10 to 15 miles from Derrycaw to ``The Moy Fair'' in order to sell his livestock. On one such occasion, he met Martha Burrell, the daughter of a farmer in Derryall named Wesley Burrell. Martha was born about 1854; she and her brother Wesley Burrell were orphaned at an early age and had been reared by two maiden aunts. Wesley, who never married, emigrated to the USA where he lived in Astoria, Long Island; he died there in 1926. James and Martha were married in the Parish Church of Drumcree on May 22, 1882. On their marriage certificate both are listed as being of full age, previously unmarried and working as weavers. James is listed as from Derrycaw and Martha as from neighbouring Derryall. Both fathers, James Arnold and Wesley Burrell are listed as farmers. The witnesses to the marriage were Joseph Boyce and George Gregg. Sometime later James and Martha moved to Drumcree, Portadown, where James became Land Steward to a people called Tate who had a business in Portadown. They kept sheep on what was the old Portadown golf course. Arnold Earls remembered visiting there with his mother and that it was the first time he saw a sheep being sheared. James Arnold and his family attended the nearby Drumcree Parish Church. A photograph of James and Martha Arnold with their daughters Elizabeth and Martha is included. The old homestead in which they lived has been modernized and is presently occupied by a Mrs. Donnelly, whose two postmen sons helped Irene Calvert trace this family. James and Martha had eight children who are listed below with their descendants. They are both buried in the graveyard of Drumcree Parish Church where a gravestone, almost opposite the main door, reads:
James and Martha Arnold with daughters Elizabeth and Martha.
``In loving memory of Martha Arnold beloved wife of James Arnold of Drumcree who died Dec.6, 1921 aged 67 years. Also the above named James Arnold who died Sept.8, 1927 aged 81 years. Also Robert James Arnold beloved husband of Annie (Thompson) who died Jan.16, 1960 aged 78. Also Annie Elizabeth died Oct.6, 1968 aged 80 years.''
The children of James and Martha Arnold:
- Margaret Arnold, known as ``Peggy'', was born in 1877 in Derryall, County Armagh. She married Tom Tomlinson in the USA. Tom had been an orphan, raised by the Benson family who had a farm in Drumcree Parish. As a young man he and a few other boys had emigrated to the United States. Shortly after a visit home, he and Peggy were married in the USA. They did not have any family and never returned to Ireland. They lived on Imely(?) St. in Manchester, Connecticut. Margaret died on Dec.11, 1947 or 1958, and is buried in the East Cemetery, Manchester.
- Robert James Arnold was born on Mar.22, 1881, in Derryall, County Armagh. He served as a farrier in the Royal Field Artillery and continued to work with horses when he came home from the army. He ended his working life as sexton in the Drumcree Parish Church where his name is on the War Memorial. On Dec.27, 1917, he married Annie Elizabeth Thompson (born on Jul.27, 1887) in Drumcree, Portadown, and they had four children listed below. Robert appears in an included photograph with his daughter Peggy. Robert died on Jan.16, 1960, in Killycomain, Portadown and Annie on Oct.6, 1968. They are both buried in Drumcree Parish Church graveyard (see above epitaph). Their children:
- Margaret ``Peggy'' Arnold was born on Oct.12, 1919, and married Thomas Rea from Canada on Nov.21, 1940. In 1983 and in 1989 they lived at 7 Knockmena Park, Portadown, and attended Drumcree Parish Church. They had two children:
- Thomas William Rea born Sept. 1943.
- Emerald Rea born Jan. 1942.
- Martha Arnold was born on Jun.9, 1921, in Portadown. She married George Henry Joseph Armstrong on Feb.4, 1949. George died on Fe.13, 1993, and Martha on May 11, 1994. Martha and George had six children:
- Robert George ``Roy'' Armstrong was born on Dec.2, 1949, and died on May 27, 1999.
- Margaret Anne Armstrong born Nov.11, 1951.
- Kenneth Armstrong was born on May 31, 1954, and works at an upholstery business in Thomas Street, Dungannon. His wife, Roberta, teaches at the Lisnagleer Primary School.
- Jill Armstrong born Nov.11, 1958.
- Valerie Armstrong born Jan.13, 1961.
- Lorna Armstrong born April 13, 1964.
- Robert James Arnold was born on Feb.28, 1923. He married Francis Maude Jones, born in Belfast on Nov.30, 1925. They lived at 57 Abbey Road, Botley Road, Oxford OX2 6AD, England (in 1989) and had four children:
- Elizabeth Ann May Arnold was born in Belfast on Dec.3, 1948. On Aug.14, 1971, in Reading, England, she married William Fredrick Kearney, born Aug.26, 1946, in Oxford. The4y had two children listed below. Elizabeth and William were divorced and, on Aug.29, 1989, in Los Angeles, Elizabeth married Timothy Peter Robert Brighouse. The children of Elizabeth and William:
- James William Kearney was born in Oxford on Apr.17, 1973.
- Anna Elizabeth May Kearney was born in Oxford on May 14, 1976. She married Steven Tavinor and they had twins listed below. Anna and Steven were divorced and Anna had a third child with Kevin Sholl.
- Max Fredrick Tavinor was born in Oxford on Mar.23, 1996.
- Kit Craig Tavinor was born in Oxford on Mar.23, 1996.
- Poppy Elizabeth Hazel Kearney, the daughter of Anna and Kevin Sholl was born in Oxford on Dec.9, 2005.
- Robert James Arnold was married twice. By his first wife he had two children, Robert James Arnold and Victoria Caroline Arnold. His second wife was named Daphne. Robert died in 2003.
- Pamela Arnold married Michael Parsons and had two children, Andrew and Daniel Parsons. Pamela's second husband was named Percy. They were later divorced and her third husband was named Kenneth.
- Audrey Arnold was born about 1960 and married Roger Sherbourne. They have a son, Shane, born about 1983. Audrey and Roger were divorced and Audrey married again to a man named Danny.
- Samuel Joseph Arnold was born on Oct.26, 1925, and married Annie Francis of Portadown. They lived at 40 Seagoe Park, Portadown, and had four children:
- Jean Arnold.
- Margaret Arnold.
- Joseph Arnold.
- Frances Arnold.
- Elizabeth Jane Arnold was born on Jan.22, 1884, in Derryall. On Sep.13, 1910 she married Frederick W. Mansell in Drumcree Parish Church. He and Elizabeth lived in Stranmillis, Belfast, where Elizabeth died on March 21, 1936 or 1942. They had one daughter:
- Elizabeth Jane Mansell, known as Betty, was born in March 1926. She appears in an attached photograph. Betty married Donald Francis in March 1957 and died of a brain tumor in Ballymena in 1965. They had two children:
- Donald Frederick Francis.
- (daughter) Francis.
Left: Lily Arnold, Martha Hyde and Betty and Fred Mansell about 1929. Right: Mark and Mary Jane (Tedford) Arnold at their wedding in 1908.
(Right: Courtesy of Dick Jenkins)
- Mark Arnold was born on Dec.20, 1884, in Derryvane near Portadown, County Armagh. Derryvane is a townland immediately to the south of Derrycaw in the parish of Drumcree. He emigrated to the USA, arriving in New York as a 20-year old unmarried laborer on Apr.4, 1905, aboard the ``Caledonia'' from Londonderry. He was bound for the home of his uncle Wesley Burrell at 537 9th Av., Astoria, Long Island. He later moved to Manchester, Connecticut, where he became an officer in the Salvation Army. It was in that capacity that he met Mary Jane Tedford who was born in County Armagh on Apr.28, 1886, the daughter of John and Mary Anne (Hewitt) Tedford. In 1887, at the age of 15 months, Mary Jane had emigrated to the USA with her mother and siblings. Mark and Mary Jane married on Aug.5, 1908, in South Manchester, Connecticut. As a Salvation Army officer, Mark moved to assignments in various places within the New England area. In the 1920 Census they are recorded as living in Newburyport, MA, with their eldest two children. About 1925 Mark abandoned his wife and three children (see below) when Mary Jane was hospitalized in Boston, MA. As a result Mary Jane and the children were forced to return to Manchester and to the Tedford family. In the 1930 Census Mark is recorded as "widowed" and living in Detroit. In the 1940 Census he is recorded as a trader in cosmetics and health foods living in Chicago with his "wife" Margaret (aged 55 and born in Illinois) who is also a trader in the same business. Mark and his "wife" Margaret eventually went to Los Angeles for he died there on Aug.9, 1955. Margaret died in 1950 and they are buried in companion graves in Forest Lawn Memorial Park, Glendale, CA. Mary Jane lived out her life in the care of daughter Dorothy and Dorothy's husband Harry in Manchester, CT, and died on Dec.17, 1957. The children of Mark and Mary Jane Arnold:
- Dorothy Evelyn Arnold was born on Jul.21, 1911, in Connecticut and, in the 1920 Census, is recorded as living in Newburyport, MA, with her parents. She was about 13 or 14 when her father left and she subsequently moved back to Manchester and to the Tedford family. She had to leave school after completing the 7th grade to find work and income to support sister Beatrice, brother Bob and mother Mary Jane. Mary Jane's brother, Albert Tedford, held a rather high position in the Cheney Silk Mills in Manchester and saw to it that Dorothy would work in his department where he could keep an eye on her. She worked in the mills for 30 years until Cheney Silk Mills were sold to J.P.Stevens. She then found work at Pratt & Whitney and worked there for 21 years. Dorothy married Carl Nyberg (born in Arvika, Sweden, on Jul.8, 1909, the son of Herman and Ida Olivia Nyberg) who had emigrated to the USA on Mar.27, 1926. They were divorced after 3 years; on Oct.21, 1943, Dorothy married Harry I. Jenkins from Detroit, MI. In 2002 she was living at 129 Campfield Road, Manchester, Connecticut 06040. Dorothy died on Nov.3, 2003. Dorothy and Carl had a son:
- Richard Carl Nyberg Jenkins (email@example.com) joined the Air Force and, later, became an engineer. He and his wife Sandra live in Niceville, FL. Richard had a son and a daughter with his first wife , Jean Dougherty:
- Steven P. Jenkins married Mary Kathleen O'Donnell and they live in Bucyrus, Kansas.
- Suzanne Marie Jenkins married Gerard T. Frigon, Jr., and they live in Simsbury, CT.
- Beatrice M. Arnold was born on Feb.8, 1917, in New Hampshire and, in the 1920 Census, is recorded as living in Newburyport, MA, with her parents. When her father abandoned the family she moved back to Manchester and to the Telford family. In the 1937, 38 and 39 Manchester City Directories she is listed as a filing clerk living at 300 Spruce. In the 1940 Directory she is listed as a student with the same address. Beatrice became a Salvation Army Officer and married Brigadier Walter Hooper. Beatrice died on Aug.8, 2001.
- Richard Mark Arnold was born on Feb.2, 1915, in Rochester, NH. He died of pleurisy at the age of 4 on May 5, 1919, while the family was living in Rochester, New Hampshire.
- Robert Earl Arnold was born on Jun.7, 1922, in Manchester, CT. He lived with his sister and mother in Manchester after his father left. Robert married Margory Dearing about 1958. He passed away on May 28, 1988. Margory passed away on Mar.7, 1996.
- William Arnold was born in 1887 in Drumcree and died as an infant on Easter 1888.
Left: Thomas Arnold (1888-1961), son Thomas Patrick Arnold and grandson Thomas about 1948. Right: Elizabeth, Martha, Thomas Patrick, and Anne, children of Thomas and Myrtis Arnold in 1990.
- Thomas Arnold was born in Drumcree on May 9, 1888. He was the sixth child of James and Martha Arnold. In August 1912, at the age of 24, he sailed from Belfast to Toronto, Canada, where he remained for two and a half years, living part of the time with Fred and Lily Arnold Cook. In the fall of 1914 a fast-talking salesman sold him some land on the West Palm Beach Canal, site unseen. So, in Jan. 1915, he travelled by train to Florida where he rented a room in Delray Beach. Through the Osceola Baptist Church in Delray Beach he met Myrtis Chastain, born Mar.9, 1897, in Cairo, Georgia, the daughter of Thomas Mack Chastain. In the summer of 1916, the Chastains moved back to Cairo, Georgia, but before they did Tom Arnold and Myrtis Chastain were engaged. They were married on Oct.2, 1916, near Cairo and continued to live in that general area for the first ten years of their married life. In the summer of 1926 they moved to central Florida where they took up residence at 128 N.Highland Ave, Winter Garden, Florida. Winter Garden is about 15 miles west of Orlando. There Tom owned and operated ``Arnold's Feed Store'' which sold farmer's supplies, feed, seed, fertilizer, etc. Thomas died in Winter Garden on June 13, 1961, at the age of 73. Myrtis died there on Dec.2, 1984, at the age of 87. They are buried at Woodlawn Cemetary on the Old Winter Garden Road about 10 miles west of Orlando. They had five children:
- A male child, stillborn on Jan.4, 1918, in Thomas County, Georgia.
- Thomas Patrick Arnold, known as ``Pat'', was born near Cairo, Georgia, on Mar.17, 1919. He graduated from Stetson University in 1942 and entered the Baptist Theological Seminary in Ft. Worth, Texas. On Jan.12, 1943, during a special trip home, he was married in DeLand, Florida, to Harriet Henderson Alexander, born Jan.11, 1919 in Beresford, Florida. They went back to Texas and, while there, Pat became the pastor of a small church in Rodessa, Louisiana. Not long after this Pat joined the West Indies Missions and he and Harriet went to Cuba. Life in Cuba was difficult and when Castro took over they were asked to leave. Pat remained with West Indies Missions which became World Team Missions and retired as its president. Harriet died on Aug.31, 1988, in Miami. At present (1989), Rev. Thomas Patrick Arnold is pastor of the Key Biscayne Presbyterian Church lives at 230 Greenwood Drive, Key Biscayne, Florida 33149. He and Harriet had two children:
- Thomas Patrick Arnold, Jr., known as ``Tom'', was born in Asheville, N.C. on Oct. 7, 1946. On Aug.15, 1970 in Rockland, Maine, he married Margaret Ellen Mills, born Jun.8, 1948, in Rockland. In 1989 they were living at 1306 N. Mitchell Ave, Arlington Heights, Ill. 60004. They have four children, David Thomas Arnold born Apr.26, 1974, in St. Charles, Illinois, Ruth Ellen Arnold born Oct.27, 1975, in St. Charles, Timothy Douglas Arnold born Feb.26, 1977, in St. Charles and John Patrick Arnold born Feb.28, 1982, in Arlington Heights.
- Harriet Elizabeth Arnold, known as ``Beth'' was born in Biltmore, N.C., on Sep.17, 1949. On June 21, 1974, in Key Biscayne, she was married to John Lloyd Thomas of Miami, Florida, and their address in 1989 is 125 N. Clara Ave, Deland, Florida 32720. John and Harriet have two children: James Alexander born in Coral Gables on Apr.11, 1980, and Robert David Thomas born in DeLand on Feb.4, 1986.
- Martha Arnold was born on Jun.24, 1921, near Cairo, Georgia. She attended Stetson University and studied pre-nursing. She married Harry Stephen Ficquette in Winter Garden on June 1, 1943, when he was home on leave from the Marines. After their marriage they moved to Haines City, Florida, where Harry worked in the citrus industry. He is now retired and they currently (1989) reside at 145 Lake Marian Road, Winter Haven, Florida 33880. They had three children:
- Harry Steven Ficquette Jr. was born on Nov.25, 1945, in Orlando. His first wife was Sarah Elizabeth Burnside. He was married for the second time in Apopka, Florida, on May 12, 1976, to Lydia Ann Boltin. They currently (1989) live at 315 Evergreen Lane, Middleburg, Florida 32068. They have two children: Robert Boltin born about 1971 and Arnold Stephen Ficquette born Nov.7, 1980.
- Richard Arnold Ficquette was born on Aug.11, 1948, in Orlando. His first wife was Jeanie Lambert. He was married for the second time in Winter Haven, Florida, on Sep.2, 1977, to Susan DeRamos and they currently (1989) live at 6217 Christine Groves, Circle E., Lakeland, Florida 33803. They have three children: Richard Arnold Ficquette Jr., born Feb. 7, 1981, in Lakeland, Brian Neal Ficquette, born May 25, 1982, in Lakeland and Alex Boone Ficquette.
- Thomas Earl Ficquette was born on Feb.28, 1951, in Orlando and died on Apr. 1, 1968, in Dade City.
- Elizabeth Arnold was born near Cairo, Georgia, on Dec.12, 1925. She attended Florida State College for Women in Tallahassee and Stetson University. On Apr.4, 1947, in Winter Garden, Florida, she married Harold Douglas Maguire, born Aug.11, 1923, in Killarney, Florida. Harold took over the management of the Maguire family citrus business and, in 1989, they are still living at 2 N. Bluford Ave, Ocoee, Florida 32761. They have two children:
- Nancy Lillian Maguire was born on Sep.8, 1949, in Orlando. She married and divorced Thomas Richard Hamer. Nancy is a schoolteacher in Orlando and currently (1989) lives at 3508 Crystal Lake Ave. East, Orlando, Florida 32806.
- Harold Douglas Maguire Jr., known as ``Mickey'', was born on May 2, 1952, in Orlando and died in an airplane accident in Windemere, Florida, on Jan.8, 1972.
- Anne Chastain Arnold was born in West Palm Beach, Florida, on Mar.26, 1936. She attended Stetson University for two years but then decided to enter the world of business. On May 9, 1959, she married Donald Eugene Hammon in Winter Garden and their current address is P.O. Box 45, Windemere, Florida 32786. They have three children:
- Donald Eugene Hammon, Jr., born on Sep.20, 1963, in Orlando.
- Russell Hammon born in Orlando on Apr.9, 1965. He graduated from college in 1989.
- Brenda Kay Hammon born in Aug.21, 1968, in Clearwater, Florida. She graduated from high school in 1989.
- William Samuel Arnold was born in 1890 in Drumcree and never married. He worked briefly for the Tate family business in Portadown. In his early life, Samuel had heard and read alot about South Africa, much of it from his aunt, Elizabeth King, who lived all of her married life in Pretoria. While still young, he went to Port Elizabeth where he worked for a group of mining engineers. We also think he served in the South Africa Corps because he is remembered on the War Memorial in Drumcree Parish Church. Unfortunately he caught a tropical fever from which he suffered periodic attacks. After recovering from one such attack in 1936 he died suddenly at Guanda, Southern Rhodesia. He is buried at Port Elizabeth.
- Martha Arnold was born in 1893 in Drumcree. Before her marriage, she owned and operated a linen shop in Londonderry, making clothes and household merchandise with the help of many employees. She continued this for a number of years after she was married. On Sep.25, 1925, in Londonderry she married Eric Ray Gregory of Dublin and they had three children. Eric died on Sep.23, 1963, and Martha died in Londonderry in 1965.
- Arnold Augustine Gregory was born in 1926 and married June Rose Hill on Mar.31, 1951. They had one child:
- Paul Gregory.
- Elizabeth Theresa Gregory was born in 1927 and married Dr.?. She had three children, John, Peter and David Mark.
- Margaret Gregory, known as ``Peggy'', was born in Nov., 1931. She had children, Stephen Anthony (died at birth), twins Christopher Mark and Brendan John, Marie Therese (married a man named Doherty), Kieran James, Dermot Gregory, Brian (died at birth) and Nuala Frances.
- John Wesley Arnold (see photo) was born in 1896 in Drumcree. He was seriously wounded in Dec. 1916 while serving with the the Royal Marines during World War I; for this service he is remembered on the War Memorial in Drumcree Parish Church. He was hospitalized for several months and received an honorable discharge in March 1917. After coming home, he was slightly impaired by the wounds he had suffered in his legs and feet. John Wesley was married in 1925 to Annie McCartney. He died on Jan.5, 1961 and is buried in Belfast City Cemetery.
- Anthony Arnold was born on Mar.18, 1854, in Derrycaw and appears in the Tartaraghan Presbyterian Church records. He must have died young since family history has forgotten him.
- Eliza Arnold was born on Oct.24, 1856, in Derrycaw. Family history seems to have forgotten her.
- William Arnold was brought up at Derrycaw with his brother Mark's family. He moved to England where he and his wife lived in Barrow in Furness. They had nine children, five sons and four daughters. One son was named Alex. Legend has it that three sons joined the army and the other two joined the navy.
- Thomas Arnold, born about 1844, was of full age, a bachelor and a weaver, of Derrycaw, parish of Drumcree, when he married Ruth Black, a minor (born about 1846) and spinster, of Drumlellum, parish of Tartaraghan, County Armagh, on July 9, 1866, in the Presbyterian Church in Portadown. On their marriage certificate Thomas's father is given as James Arnold, farmer, and Ruth's as Abraham Black, a farmer. Shortly after their marriage they must have taken up residence in Drumlellum for that is the residence given on their children's birth certificates. Also on these documents, Thomas is listed as a weaver. They moved to Barrow-in-Furness, Lancashire, England, before 1867 for their first few children were born there. However, about 1904 they emigrated to New York for the remainder of their family were born in Brooklyn, New York. Their children:
- Abraham James Arnold was born on Jun.14, 1867, in Drumlellum.
- William Thomas Arnold was born on Oct.4, 1868, in Drumlellum.
- Eliza Arnold was born on Oct.5, 1870, in Drumlellum.
- Isaac Arnold was born on Aug.5, 1872, at Cofuney(?) Bridge.
- Sarah Lavinia Arnold was born on May 3, 1874, in Barrow-in-Furness, Lancashire, England. On Jun.10, 1897, she married William Lewis Hughes (born Nov.24, 1872 in Barrow-in-Furness) in Barrow-in Furness. William died in Brooklyn, New York, about 1949; Sarah died in New York on Apr.12, 1962. William and Sarah had children:
- Edward John Hughes was born in Barrow-in-Furness on Aug.8, 1897. He married Dorothea Daub in Brooklyn, New York, on Jun.20, 1928. He died in Suffolk, New York in Jan. 1979.
- Doris May Hughes was born in Barrow-in-Furness in 1899 and married Arthur Hill.
- William Lewis Hughes was born in Barrow-in-Furness on Feb.4, 1900, and married Florence Rose Howard about 1925. He died in Valley Stream, Nassau, New York on Feb.3, 1962.
- Joseph Shorrock Hughes was born in Barrow-in-Furness in 1903 and died as a child.
- Thomas Arnold Hughes was born in Brooklyn, New York on May 23, 1905. He married Ethel Holly Green in Manhattan, New York, on Jan.9, 1928. Thomas died in Leighton, Carbon, PA, on Aug.9, 1969.
- John L. Hughes was born in Brooklyn, New York about 1907 and died in Suffolk, New York, about 1967.
- George Arthur Hughes was born in Brooklyn, New York on Aug.15, 1909. He married Mary Gentile in the Bronx, New York, on Apr.28, 1938. He died in Brooklyn on Sep.6, 1957.
- Sarah Amelia Hughes was born in Brooklyn, New York on Sep.15, 1911. She married Harold Frank Fendt on Jun.13, 1930. She died on Sep.17, 2002.
- Ruth Lydia Hughes was born in Brooklyn, New York on Jan.3, 1912. She married John Joseph Kocher in Brooklyn on Apr.16, 1932. Ruth died in Newark, Delaware, on Oct.31, 2005.
- Samuel Arnold was of full age, a bachelor and a weaver, of Derrycaw, parish of Drumcree, when he married Mary Jane Hampton, of full age and a spinster, of Derryneskin, parish of Drumcree, on Aug.26, 1869, in the Presbyterian Church, Portadown. On their marriage certificate Samuel's father is given as James Arnold, a farmer, and Mary's as Thomas Hampton, a farmer. The witnesses to the marriage were John Wilson and Jane Clements. Shortly after their marriage Samuel became a ``dealer in potatoes'' and they must have taken up residence in Corcrain, Portadown for thus they are described on the birth certificate of their first child, James. However, before their second child arrived in 1872, Samuel had become a railway porter and they had moved to Mary Street, Portadown. We believe that later they took up residence on Cooke Street, Belfast, and that they had a steam laundry nearby. Their children:
- James Arnold was born on Jul.14, 1870, in Corcrain, Portadown.
- Eliza Arnold was born on Feb.14, 1872, in Mary Street, Portadown.
- Mary Ann Arnold was born on Feb.2, 1874, in Mary Street, Portadown.
- Elizabeth Arnold married Henry King. They emigrated to Pretoria, South Africa, where they both died. So far as we know they had no children.
- Margaret Arnold never married and lived in Derrycaw with her brother Mark Arnold.
- Mark Arnold inherited the old homestead and farm at Derrycaw near Portadown, County Armagh. He became an elder in the Tartaraghan Presbyterian Church. Late in life he married Mary Truman and they had a son, James, and three daughters, Lily, Minnie and Maggie. Mark's younger brother William was also raised as part of the family. Mark Arnold died on July 11, 1915 when the children were young and his widow, Mary, was unable to look after the farm. They were poor and Mary, who was never very well after her youngest daughter Minnie was born, passed away about 1925. The children of Mark and Mary Arnold:
- James Arnold died at the age of about six months.
- Lily Arnold, the eldest daughter, was born on May 5, 1904. She was only about 8 when her father died and about 18 when her mother died. After that her uncle Robert Arnold arranged for her to go into domestic service and looked after her to some extent. She never married. After Edith, wife of Robert John Arnold, died young Lily helped bring up their three sons, Robert, Arthur and Dennis Arnold.
- Margaret Jane Arnold, known as ``Maggie'', was born on June 30, 1909. She was only 5 and 15 respectively when her father and mother died. As with her sister Lily her uncle Robert Arnold arranged for her to go into domestic service. Maggie married William Wylie and at one time lived at 35 Derrycarne Road, Derryconey, Portadown. She had two children:
- Mary Wylie married Danny Macauley and had two children, Mark and Joanne Macauley.
- John Wylie married Georgina Williamson and had four children, Susan, Trevor, Jill and Jonathan Wylie.
- Mary Arnold, known as ``Minnie'', was born on Mar.16, 1913, and was, of course, even younger than her two elder sisters when her father and mother died. Her uncle Robert Arnold arranged for her to go to the Masonic School for Girls in Dublin for a year. Like her sisters she then entered domestic service. Minnie married George Hatch and had two sons, George and David, and one daughter, Joan. In the 1970s (and 1990) Minnie Hatch was living in the original Arnold homestead in Derrycaw, converted now from two units to one. The modern address is 58 Derryall Road, Portadown. The children of George and Minnie Hatch:
- George Arnold Hatch became mayor of Craigavon. Irene Calvert saw him interviewed on television on Jan.11, 1985. He had two daughters Michelle and Lindsay Hatch.
- David Anthony Hatch was born on Nov.28, 1951, and has two sons David and George Hatch.
- Joan Hatch married a man named McCrea. Joan died quite young; she had children:
- Tracy McCrea (firstname.lastname@example.org) married a man named Clark.
- Richard McCrea.
Left: John Wesley Arnold at Drumcree about 1935. Right: Robert Arnold and his family. Back row: daughters Lily, Mary (later Earls) and Jane. Front row: son James, Robert's wife Jane, Robert and son Robert.
- Robert Arnold (1858-1933), our ancestor, was born in Derrycaw near Portadown, County Armagh, on April 12, 1858, the youngest child of James and Eliza Arnold. He was sent to Belfast at the age of 13 to serve his time as an apprentice to the clothing trade with the well-known wholesale merchants Miller, Boyd and Reid. The apprentices lived over the premises of the firm in Donegall Street, Belfast. It is said that his mother walked to Belfast to make sure he was allright and then walked home again, presumably stopping with relatives on the way. Later he was recommended to Henry Anderson who owned a clothing and pawn-broking business at the end of Donegall Road near Shaftesbury Square, Belfast. Here he spent his working life, eventually becoming the owner of the business. At the time of his marriage he lived at 9 Hurst Street, Belfast. On Oct.8, 1879 he married Jane Mercer (see next chapter) at Ormeau Road Methodist Church, Belfast. On the marriage certificate he is listed as a minor (less than 21 years old), a bachelor and a pawnbroker, and she is listed as of full age, a spinster. Her address is given as 32 Albion Street, Belfast and the witnesses were Joshua and Stothard Mercer. After their marriage they lived first 67 Hopeton Street, Belfast, which is near the Cromwell Road. Their first child, Mary, was born there and on the birth certificate Robert is listed as a ``manager''. Later they moved to 2 Titania Villas, Ormeau Road (almost opposite the Ballynafeigh Methodist Church) and later to 37 Ravenhill Park, Belfast. Robert and Jane moved to Bangor, County Down in their old age and both died at Knocktarna, Groomsport Road, Bangor, County Down. Jane died on Jan. 21, 1932 and Robert on June 24, 1933; both are buried in Knockbreda graveyard, Belfast.
CHILDREN OF ROBERT AND JANE ARNOLD:
Mary Arnold (1880-1929), the eldest child and our ancestor, was born on Aug.19, 1880 at 67 Hopeton Street, Belfast, which, we believe, is near the Cromwell Road. On June 26, 1902 she was married to John Earls at the Balmoral Methodist Church, Belfast.
Mary Arnold (1880-1922) at 18.
- James Arnold (1883-1959) was a very good businessman and became a representative in Ireland for the Glasgow biscuit manufacturing company, McFarlane Lang. He married Hilda May Thompson (1884-1956) and they lived at 55 Ravenhill Park, Belfast. James died on Jan. 18, 1959 and Hilda on Oct. 13, 1955; both are buried in Knockbreda graveyard in Belfast. They had three children:
- Robert Reginald Arnold (1913-1983) died unmarried on Jan.27, 1983. He is buried in Mellifont Abbey.
- Brian Thompson Arnold, born 1917, was a bank manager in the Northern Bank. On June 15, 1943 he married Hazel Mary Raymonde Lindsay (born 1915) and they had three children. They retired to live at 16 Warren Avenue, Donaghadee, County Down. Their children:
- Kenneth Lindsay Arnold (1946- ) married Melinda Daignault. In 1991 they were living in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. Kenneth and Melinda have a son:
- Brian Edward Arnold was born in 1982.
- Linda Katherine Hilda Arnold (1948- ) married Terry Ingles.
- Ronald James Arnold (1952- ) married Paula Lisney.
- Jean Johnston Arnold was born in 1923 and studied Domestic Science in Scotland. She married Dr. Hugo Minford, who was born in 1911, played goalkeeper for the Queen's University field hockey team and served in the Territorial Army. He was a general practicioner on the Grosvenor Road, Belfast, and they lived in Cleaver Park, Belfast. Hugo died about 1989. Their two daughters who went to Ashleigh House School were:
- Jill Minford married Duncan Smith.
- Susan Minford married Richard Lightbody and had three children:
- Sally Lightbody was born in 1977.
- Simon Lightbody was born in 1979.
- Jill Lightbody was born in 1981.
- Elizabeth "Lily" Arnold ran away to Toronto, Canada with Frederick Crook. They had two daughters:
- Freda Crook was born on Aug.18, 1911. She married William Willis, born about 1903, and they had two sons listed below. William Willis had a business in Toronto which was subsequently passed on to his sons. Freda died of cancer on Jan.2, 1969, and William died of a heart attack in 1973.
- Michael Lachlan Willis was born on Apr.21, 1942. He was married first in 1967. A son and a daughter were born during this 5 year marriage. On Apr.30, 1977, Michael was married for a second time. His wife, Arlene, was born on Feb.16, 1946, in Paterson, New Jersey. Michael and Arlene had two daughters listed below. Michael inherited a business from his father which he has operated with his brother Peter for more than 25 years. In 1981 and 1986 their address was 74 Baby Point Road, Toronto, Canada. In 1991 they live at One Dale Avenue, Toronto, M4W 1K2. They also have a place in Long Boat Key, Florida, at No.206, 1000 Long Boat Key Club Road.
- Warren Willis, the son of Michael Willis and his first wife, was born about 1967 and died of cancer on Dec.16, 1984, at the age of 17.
- Jennifer Willis, the daughter of Michael Willis and his first wife, was born on Nov.16, 1969.
- Adrienne Anne Willis, the elder daughter of Michael and Arlene Willis, was born on Oct.13, 1978.
- Meghan Alexandra Willis, the younger daughter of Michael and Arlene Willis, was born on Mar.26, 1981.
- Peter Mercer Willis was born on Oct.9, 1947. He married Eve, born Jan.30, 1948. As stated above Peter and his brother Michael have been business partners for over 25 years. In Aug. 1989, Peter and Eve, adopted two boys, Jodie and Simon Carmichael, whose parents were killed in an automobile accident.
- Jodie Carmichael was born on Jul.4, 1977.
- Simon Carmichael was born on Sep.5, 1983.
- Patricia Crook was born on Feb.11, 1915, and was married three times. One of her husbands was a man named West. She lives in Toronto with her third husband, Ralph Malcolm (1991).
Left: Hilda and James Arnold with Robert Arnold (left) and Jenny Elliot (right) Right: Maeve, Vivien and Arthur Arnold in 1984.
- Jane Arnold, also known as Jennie or Jean, married Christopher J. Elliot (born about 1894). They had a farm in Ballintoy on the north coast of Antrim before the second world war. John Earls remembers them keeping hens and geese. Chris became a Squadron Leader in the RAF during the second World War and served in Iraq. Jean and Chris lived at Laurelvale near Crumlin, County Antrim, and later at 10 Taunton Road near the Antrim Road in Belfast. After Chris died Jean continued to live there for many years. They had one daughter:
- Jane Olive Elliot, also known as Jenny, was a close friend of her cousin and my mother, Muriel Earls (later Brennen). Indeed Jenny was the bridesmaid at my parents' wedding in 1939. Jenny married Flight-Lieutenant Philip Leslie Billing of the RAF about 1942. Philip came from near Sandwich in Kent. He was killed in an airplane accident just a few weeks after they were married. Later Jenny met Dr. Justin Martin who came from Sligo where his family had a tailoring business. Justin was also in the RAF. They were married during the war and lived at 33 Lansdowne Road in Belfast but later moved into Jenny's parents house at 10 Taunton Avenue near the Antrim Road in Belfast. Justin died young about 1948. Jenny and Justin had three children listed below. In 1983, Jenny was living with her son Justin in Calgary, Canada.
- Caroline Martin emigrated to the US in 1965. She married Robert W. Thorpe and since 1971 they have lived in Cerritos, south of Los Angeles, California. Caroline is presently (2000) assistant to the publisher and CEO of the Los Angeles Times and therefore works in downtown Los Angeles.
- Sarah Martin died as a result of a road accident in England.
- Justin Martin was born in 1947 and studied medicine at Queens University, Belfast. In 1976, while in Zambia, he met Helen Brady from Kildare, Ireland, and they were married in June 1977 just a few days before emigrating to Calgary, Canada. He practiced medicine there until 1987 when they moved to Victoria, British Columbia. In 1994 they moved to Riyadh, Saudia Arabia where Justin served as a physician at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital. Justin and Helen have two children:
- Gillian Martin was born about 1981 and in the year 2000 was attending Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
- Bernard Christopher Martin attended school in Riyadh and was at boarding school in Toronto in 2000.
- Robert John Arnold (1893-1957) was born June 11, 1893, and, in 1917, and inherited the pawnbroking business from his father. He was quite a ladies man. He married Edith Hester McCullough and they lived at 28 Sheridan Drive, Ballyholme, Bangor. Robert and Edith had three sons who were quite young when their mother died on Oct.8, 1932. Like her husband Edith is buried in Knockbreda graveyard, Belfast. Robert John Arnold died on Nov.15, 1957.
- Robert McCullough Arnold, known as ``Mac'', was born on Nov.9, 1918, and attended Dungannon Royal School. Mac worked for a bank, retired early for health reasons and lived at 57 Edward Road, Whitehead, County Antrim. His passion was for trains and his books on the early days of the Northern Ireland railways are still popular and available. On Sept.9, 1945 he married Kathleen Woods (born Sept.9, 1923) in Donaghadee Methodist Church and they had three children:
- Robert Lennox Michael Arnold, born May 31, 1946, married Geraldine (?)(from Whitehead) and they lived in Blackheath. They have three children:
- Patrick Arnold was born on Apr.4, 1981, and died in 1983.
- Genevieve Arnold was born on Sep.25, 1982.
- Jessica Arnold.
- Anthony Adrian Arnold, born July 1947, married Anna (from Ballyclare) and they have five children:
- Adrian Alexander Arnold was born on Jan.7, 1970.
- Robert Anthony Arnold.
- Phillipa Robyn Arnold was born on Dec.28, 1972.
- Oliver James Arnold was born on Dec.3, 1982.
- Victoria Arnold.
- Margaret Clare Arnold, born Nov.10, 1948, married Geoffrey Shepherd and they have two children:
- John Shepherd.
- Anna Shepherd.
- Arthur Kenneth Arnold was born on Mar.30, 1922, and lived with the family of John and Mary Earls for several years after his mother died. He attended Dungannon Royal School and Selwyn College, Oxford, and became a history teacher at the Rainey Endowed School in Magherafelt, County Derry. He was my (CEB) history teacher throughout my high school days and, as such, must share some of the blame for the quality of this chronicle. He certainly inspired me with a lifelong interest in history and society. He married Florence Maeve Rea (born June 29, 1924) and they have one daughter, Vivien Arnold (born Dec.27, 1948) who also became a high school teacher. Arthur Arnold died in April 1993.
- John Denis Mercer Arnold was born on Jan.5, 1925, attended Dungannon Royal School and entered the R.A.F. as a cadet at Cranwell, England. He made a career of the Royal Air Force and also enjoyed being the secretary of a golf club in England. His first wife was called Freda (?)(born about 1919). After she died he was married for the second time to a woman called Mary. Denis had no children.
Last updated 11/9/00.
Christopher E. Brennen